Changing climate and extreme weather events may have negative impacts on ecotourism and may also foster the growth of pathogens for certified plants that generate local income near conservation areas, such as coffee and cacao. Gendered knowledge about ecosystems.
Tourism for Development – Volume II: Good Practices
Women and men often have different knowledge of plants and animals, including locations, uses, populations, and availability. Women may be more aware of the utility of neglected species that have nutritional or medicinal value. Indigenous men and women often lack formal intellectual property rights. Women have more insecure rights to land and water and lower rates of property ownership. Women are under-represented in conservation planning and management committees, both locally and at higher levels.
In situations with conservation on community lands, women may need to be members of the management committees to influence how earnings are distributed from private concession holders. Women face more market-related barriers. Women have greater mobility constraints for taking their products to wholesalers and retail customers.
Women are more often limited to low-profit, informal sector employment and enterprises related to ecotourism rather than formal employment and larger enterprises. While there is some gender bias in hiring, women do not always have the necessary literacy and education levels. Some of the employment opportunities have higher risks e. In some cases, larger tourism enterprises can displace women petty traders. Climate change leads to ecosystem changes and availability of traditional foods and medicine.
Women primarily collect wild products in many cultures. Higher temperatures can shift the species composition and increase disease vectors and pathogens.
Charles A. Francis
Women may find it more difficult to find their favored species or substitute others. Climate change may expand the scale of protected areas and reduce access to land for production. As plant composition shifts, animal habitat changes and conservationists may want to expand protected areas to encompass new favorable habitat. If this practice were to remove marginal productive lands from use, women are more likely to end up with less available land.
Climate change, especially warming, can reduce the number of ecotourism visitors. Decreased tourism will have negative consequences on the local and national economies and reduce revenues for local governments and small business owners.
Conducting gender-sensitive vulnerability assessments for the biodiversity conservation sector. Several types of analyses can be used to assess both human and ecosystem vulnerability for conservation programming and project design. For conservation areas and landscape mosaics, vulnerability assessments should include information on gendered management and marketing of wild plants and animals, as well as access rights to land and natural resources. Planning and design of gender-sensitive adaptation strategies.
To increase household climate resilience and advance gender equality, several types of conservation activities for CCA projects should be prioritized:. Mangroves in Bangladesh are important wildlife habitat, fish hatcheries, and sources of wood. Traditional user practices and sustainable harvesting of fishery and forestry products have broken down.
Women have had traditional roles in gathering firewood and processing forest products.
Interview with Judy Kepher-Gona on Africa Tourism Business, Destinations and Sustainability
Their new activities, particularly for poor women and girls, include fishing and crab collection. But these tasks expose women to health and safety hazards, as well as high debt levels for the acquisition of boats and nets. Working with a gender consultant, the Sundarbans Biodiversity Conservation Project was able to reach equal numbers of poor men and women and to establish a project priority of reaching poor, female-headed households. These organizations gave women critical mass and a legally recognized voice in resource management for the SRF and common property resources in the impact zone; it also offeredleadership training to women.
In terms of influencing natural resources management and conservation decision-making, the project opened opportunities for women representatives to participate in the Stakeholders Advisory Council and work with the Sundarbans Management Unit. Gender in agriculture sourcebook. World Bank, Washington, DC. Implementing gender-sensitive biodiversity conservation for CCA. For example, national policy changes in Nepal set in place requirements for a specific percentage of women as group members and in the executive committees of community forest user groups.
National laws and regulations can also help guarantee a certain level of local use of conservation areas and specify equal rights by sex. In the Asia-Pacific region, many forests are publicly owned. Women are at risk of displacement when land values increase. In addition to this local community contribution to ecotourism development is overlooked.
Hence, understanding and documenting the contribution of local community for ecotourism development is an important guide for identifying the existing problems and developing possible solution for the sector. However, no systematic study has been done to investigate the contribution of local community for ecotourism development in and around ASLNP.
Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of local community for ecotourism development in and around ASLNP. It was established mainly for bird sanctuary in and the total surface area of the park is km 2 , of which the water body covered km 2 Hillman, The Park is bordered by three Woredas i. Currently, the park is under the process of re-demarcation. Hence, the newly proposed boundaries reduced the previous surface area from each side of the bordering Woredas by The area is characterized by a semi arid to sub-humid type of climate.
The minimum and maximum annual temperature of the area is Sampling strategy: Of the three Woredars, Arsi Negelle Woreda was purposively selected since it shares the largest part of the park, particularly the areas which are highly visited by tourists. From 20 Kebeles in the Woreda, three sampling Kebeles Daka Hora Kelo, Daka Delu Harengama and Gale fi Kelo , were selected in consultation with experts of the Woreda culture and tourism office and staff workers of the park, based on the participation of the local community in ecotourism or tourism related activities, accessibility for field work and their closeness to the park headquarter which is the most destination of tourists.
Of the total sample size, the number of female and male house hold head and the number of respondents from each Kebele was selected through proportion method Table 1. The respondents for interview were selected by simple random sampling through lottery method. Data collection: Data collection was carried out for three months January to March, at the selected sites. Both primary and secondary data was collected to address the objectives of the study.
Data from local community was collected by three enumerators, who were trained on how to collect relevant information, how to approach respondents and how to manage data. It is advantageous in allowing for in depth discussion and to avoid exaggerated opinions. Six FGD three for female and male groups were conducted with local people having seven to ten members in one discussion. Observable facts were gathered and recorded both using digital camera and by taking note on a notebook.
Secondary data was obtained from Woreda, Zone and Region Office of Culture and Tourism, reports, park staff documents, published and unpublished research works. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the mean value and percentage of respondents saying. Demographic characteristics: From the total respondents, From sampled respondents, 0. The study found that Potential ecotourism site and activities in and around the park: Tourist attraction in and around ASLNP can be divided into two major groups such as natural and man-made attractions. Natural tourist attraction sites: The study found that lakes, Fike mountains, viewpoints, hot springs and Ostrich site as potential natural tourist attraction sites in and around the park.
Besides, Pelican site and Lephis waterfall were identified as major natural attraction sites for tourists. In line to this study, Gobena reported, natural and cultural resources such as abundance and diversity of bird, scenic landscape, Ostrich farm, hot springs, cultural and historical attractions and some hotels or lodges at nearby areas as the main ecotourism potential in ASLNP. Lake Abijata: Lake Abijata which is relatively shallow alkaline lake with an area of km 2 and a maximum depth of 14 m is 6 km far from the head quarter Tenalem, From field observation and focus group discussion, wetland birds particularly Greater Flamingos Phoenicogterus ruber , Lesser Flamingos Phoenicogterus minor and Pelicans Pelicanus onocratalus were found to be the main tourist attracting fauna in the lake.
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It is also a major feeding site for aquatic and terrestrial birds including the migratory once which could serve as tourist attraction Fig. This finding was also highly confirmed by tourists who are considered as key informants. Lake Shalla: Lake Shalla which is 9 km far from the head quarter has an area of km 2 and it is the deepest lake in Ethiopia with a maximum depth of m Tenalem, Of the eight islands in the lake, four are breeding sites for wetland birds. The landscape of the lake, its hot springs, blue black color and interesting beach side were mentioned repeatedly by the sample respondents, FGD participants and key informants as the unique characteristic of the lake which attracts tourist Fig.
Lake Chitu: Lake Chitu is a beautiful green water creator lake located at 1. The lake is very small in size which is 0. It is more alkaline which provides blue green and green algae hence, it is important feeding site for Flamingos. The lake has best site for bird watching especially Flamingoes, since more than thousands of Flamingos depend on it throughout the year Fig. Therefore, these all features make it the important natural tourist attraction site. It is highly recreational site, because of its importance for swimming, enjoyable sandy beaches and its accessible location.
The lake is most suited for swimming along with in opportunities for sun-bathing offered by the sandy beaches. The lake also creates the opportunities of observing the scenic beauty of both sunrise and sunset.